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Pyelonephritis, a kidney infection that can be acute or chronic, poses a serious threat to kidney health. While antibiotics are the primary treatment, surgery may be necessary in severe cases.

The symptoms of pyelonephritis typically manifest within two days of infection and include fever, abdominal pain, painful urination, cloudy urine, and more. Older adults may experience mental confusion as a prominent symptom. Chronic pyelonephritis can exhibit milder symptoms or none at all.

Most cases of pyelonephritis stem from a urinary tract infection (UTI) that progresses to the kidneys. Bacteria, notably E. coli, are common culprits. Factors such as urinary tract abnormalities, shorter urethras in women, kidney stones, and suppressed immune systems can increase the risk of infection.

Risk Factors:
Risk factors for acute pyelonephritis include urinary tract abnormalities, age (especially in older adults), suppressed immune systems, vesicoureteral reflux, an enlarged prostate, catheter use, cystoscopic examination, urinary tract surgery, certain medications, and nerve or spinal cord damage. Chronic pyelonephritis is more common in children with urinary obstructions.

Doctors diagnose pyelonephritis through urine tests to detect bacteria, blood, and pus. Imaging tests such as ultrasound and CT scans help identify obstructions or abnormalities in the urinary tract. A dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) test may be ordered to assess scarring.


  • Antibiotics are the first line of defense against acute pyelonephritis, with options like levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, and ampicillin.
  • Hospital admission may be necessary for severe cases, involving intravenous hydration and monitoring.
  • Recurrent infections may require surgery to address underlying issues, with nephrectomy as a last resort.
  • Fetroja in Treatment: Fetroja , a cephalosporin antibacterial, is indicated for patients 18 years and older with pyelonephritis caused by susceptible Gram-negative microorganisms. It is also used in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Fetroja role is crucial in managing infections, emphasizing the importance of its use only when necessary to prevent drug-resistant bacteria.

Potential Complications:
One potential outcome of acute pyelonephritis is the development of chronic kidney disease. If the infection persists, it may lead to irreversible damage to the kidneys. While uncommon, there is also a risk of the infection spreading to the bloodstream, giving rise to a potentially life-threatening condition known as sepsis.

  • Additional complications encompass:
  • Recurrent kidney infections
  • Spread of the infection to surrounding areas of the kidneys
  • Acute kidney failure
  • Formation of kidney abscess

Pyelonephritis poses significant health risks, requiring prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Antibiotics remain a cornerstone, but in severe cases, hospital admission and surgery may be necessary. Fetroja stands out as a valuable option in managing Gram-negative infections, underlining the importance of responsible antibiotic use to combat the rise of drug-resistant bacteria. Regular medical check-ups and adherence to preventive measures can contribute to reducing the incidence of pyelonephritis.


Nitin Goswami

Nitin Goswami joined us as an Editor in 2020. He covers all the updates in the field of Pharmaceutical, Business Healthcare, Health News, Medical News, and Pharma News.

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